Espalier is a farming system with a vertical trunk, where a 8-10 buds long branch is trained along row direction. A branch of 1-2 buds is left for following year renovation.


For this structure prestressed concrete piles or steel piles can both be used: the former spaced maximum 6 meter apart, the latter no more than 5. Both should be planted in the ground for at least 70 – 80 cm, normally standing app. 170 – 180 cm above the ground. The vertical trunk is 80 – 100 cm tall and fruit cane rests on a load-bearing wire, measuring between 2,00 mm and 3,15 mm, depending on used material. Above main wire, one or two couple of wires are stretched at approx. 30 – 40 cm: their purpose is to gather the vegetation, helping it to develop upwards.

Sometimes, on pile upper part appr. 1,80 from the ground, a further wire may be positioned to provide shoots with additional support. Mechanical operations can be applied with excellent results: shoots tipping/tying and harvesting are easily done where mechanical pruning is impossible, since it will cut following here fruitful branch.


  • excellent plant density;
  • (3.500 – 5.500 plants per hectare);
  • easy structure;
  • excellent leaves exposure;
  • excellent production quality;
  • good mechanization level;
  • indicated for vineyards with low basic productivity.

System standard set-up

  • bigger diameter load-bearing wire (Ø 2 ÷ 3.15 mm) set at 0,8 ÷ 1 m
  • smaller containing vegetation wires (Ø 1.6 ÷ 1.8 mm) set 30cm over load-bearing wire
  • plant gathering wire, set on the top or anyway 70/8’cm from load bearing wire

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